What is steganography

These eight bits can be "written" to the least significant bit of each of the eight carrier bytes as follows: Knowing the steganography software that is available on the suspect computer will help the analyst select the most likely statistical tests.

Mimic functions convert one file to have the statistical profile of another. Hiding data within data. One simple approach is to visually inspect the carrier and steganography media.

Secure steganographic methods for palette images. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany,pp. Steganophony — the concealment of messages in Voice-over-IP conversations, e.

It is a time-consuming process with obvious resource implications, even in countries that employ many people to spy on their fellow nationals. By preagreement with members of a terrorist organization, the leader of the terrorist cell puts an item for sale on eBay every Monday and posts a photograph of the item.

Forensic accounting investigators are realizing the need to search for steganography as this becomes a viable way to hide financial records Hosmer and Hyde ; Seward Many graphics software tools order the palette colors by frequency, luminance, or other parameter, and a randomly ordered palette stands out under statistical analysis Fridrich and Du On the Website, the series of small images are positioned next to each other and appear the same as the original large image Petitcolas Furthermore, the type of steganography software found will directly impact any subsequent steganalysis e.

Steganography will not be found if it is not being looked for. Higher-order wavelet statistics and their application to digital forensics. A message, the plaintextmay be first encrypted by traditional means, producing a ciphertext. International Journal of Digital Evidence [Online].

Finding appropriate clues is where the rest of the investigation and computer forensics comes into play. The stegotext was the doll orders, and the concealed "plaintext" was itself encoded and gave information about ship movements, etc.

Figure 5 airport image: Least significant bit insertion in a palette-based image often causes a large number of duplicate colors, where identical or nearly identical colors appear twice in the palette and differ only in the least significant bit. First Monday, [Online]. The cell members know when that time is and download the weekly message.

Other file types also have characteristics that can be exploited for information hiding.


The steganography file isbytes in size and containsunique colors. Like all least significant bit insertion programs that act on eight-bit color images, Gif-It-Up modifies the color palette and generally ends up with many duplicate color pairs. Using hidden control characters, and redundant use of markup e.

Discovering covert digital evidence.Steganography is a word that was resurrected after being in disuse for almost years! It was put to rest in the early s, labeled an archaic synonym of "cryptography" by dictionary makers, but was brought back to life in the.

A computer forensics examiner might suspect the use of steganography because of the nature of the crime, books in the suspect's library, the type of hardware or software discovered, large sets of seemingly duplicate images, statements made by the suspect or witnesses, or other factors.

Steganography is the hiding of information within a more obvious kind of communication. Although not widely used, digital steganography involves the. Steganography includes the concealment of information within computer files.

In digital steganography, electronic communications may include steganographic coding inside of a transport layer, such as a document file, image file, program or protocol.


Media files are ideal for steganographic transmission because of their large size. Steganography is the art of hiding a secret message behind the normal message. This is used to transfer some secret message to other person and no interim person will be able to know what the real message which you wanted to convey was.

This art of hiding secret messages has been used for years in. Steganography sometimes is used when encryption is not permitted. Or, more commonly, steganography is used to supplement encryption.

An encrypted file may still hide information using steganography, so even if the encrypted file is deciphered, the hidden message is not seen.

What is steganography
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