The grandest expression of ethical virtue requires great political power, because it is the political leader who is in a position to do the greatest amount of good for the community. Once we see that temperance, courage, and other generally recognized characteristics are mean states, we are in a position to generalize and to identify other mean states as virtues, even though they are not qualities for which we have a name.
Why should we experience anger at all, or fear, or the degree of concern for wealth and honor that Aristotle commends? The virtuous beings essay these perfect friendships produce advantages and pleasures for each of the parties, there is some basis for going along with common usage and calling any relationship entered into for the sake of just one of these goods a friendship.
He speaks as though it is only in friendships based on character that one finds a desire to benefit the other person for the sake of the other person. This is precisely what a strong form of egoism cannot accept.
The happiest life is lived by someone who has a full understanding of the basic causal principles that govern the operation of the universe, and who has the resources needed for living a life devoted to the exercise of that understanding. He assumes that such a list can be compiled rather easily; most would agree, for example, that it is good to have friends, to experience The virtuous beings essay, to be healthy, to be honored, and to have such virtues as courage at least to some degree.
Although it really is a pleasure and so something can be said in its favor, it is so inferior to other goods that ideally one ought to forego it.
As he himself points out, one traditional conception of happiness identifies it with virtue b30—1.
One might object that people who are sick or who have moral deficiencies can experience pleasure, even though Aristotle does not take them to be in a natural state. These analogies can be taken to mean that the form of akrasia that Aristotle calls weakness rather than impetuosity always results from some diminution of cognitive or intellectual acuity at the moment of action.
We thus have these four forms of akrasia: The difficult and controversial question arises when we ask whether certain of these goods are more desirable than others.
It is odd that pleasure receives two lengthy treatments; no other topic in the Ethics is revisited in this way. And to keep control over your four virtues: Because of this pattern in his actions, we would be justified in saying of the impetuous person that had his passions not prevented him from doing so, he would have deliberated and chosen an action different from the one he did perform.
A craft product, when well designed and produced by a good craftsman, is not merely useful, but also has such elements as balance, proportion and harmony—for these are properties that help make it useful.
They agree about the value of pleasure, defend a theory about its nature, and oppose competing theories. A Some agents, having reached a decision about what to do on a particular occasion, experience some counter-pressure brought on by an appetite for pleasure, or anger, or some other emotion; and this countervailing influence is not completely under the control of reason.
By contrast, the impetuous person does not go through a process of deliberation and does not make a reasoned choice; he simply acts under the influence of a passion.
These are qualities one learns to love when one is a child, and having been properly habituated, one no longer looks for or needs a reason to exercise them. Even so, it may still seem perplexing that these two intellectual virtues, either separately or collectively, should somehow fill a gap in the doctrine of the mean.
At the same time, Aristotle makes it clear that in order to be happy one must possess others goods as well—such goods as friends, wealth, and power.
Forbear resenting Injuries so much as you think they deserve. But another part of us—feeling or emotion—has a more limited field of reasoning—and sometimes it does not even make use of it.
Reason, Purpose, and Self-Esteem. Suppose we grant, at least for the sake of argument, that doing anything well, including living well, consists in exercising certain skills; and let us call these skills, whatever they turn out to be, virtues.
If we imagine a life filled with pleasure and then mentally add wisdom to it, the result is made more desirable. The more important question for Aristotle is why one needs to be on the giving end of this relationship.
Nonetheless, an excellent juror can be described as someone who, in trying to arrive at the correct decision, seeks to express the right degree of concern for all relevant considerations.
It may seem odd that after devoting so much attention to the practical virtues, Aristotle should conclude his treatise with the thesis that the best activity of the best life is not ethical.
Those who wish good things to their friends for the sake of the latter are friends most of all, because they do so because of their friends themselves, and not coincidentally.
Here he is influenced by an idea expressed in the opening line of the Ethics: He cites and endorses an argument given by Plato in the Philebus: By contrast, Aristotle assumes that if A is desirable for the sake of B, then B is better than A a14—16 ; therefore, the highest kind of good must be one that is not desirable for the sake of anything else.For example, Aristotle believed that anyone keen to live a virtuous life will reach happiness (Aristotle ).
[tags: Virtue and Happiness Essays] Free Robert Keith Miller wrote an essay for Newsweek in the summer of that focuses on the discrepancies in the use of the word discrimination. - Happiness is the goal of every. Nov 12, · How to Be a Virtuous Woman.
Women tend to be very emotional beings, and the downside of emotion is that it can often blind or cripple reason. A virtuous woman accepts her emotions but uses reason to temper her reactions.
Govern yourself by wisdom rather than by folly%().
Free Essay: What kind of person should I be? In dealing with the question with virtue ethics, moral dilemmas such as this question will be investigated in. Oct 02, · Virtue ethics is person rather than action based.
It looks at the moral character of the person carrying out an action. A right act is the action a virtuous person would do in the same. After a successful launch of this novel, she wrote another novel entitled “A Virtuous Woman” in that brought more success to her uprising career.
We will write a custom essay sample on A Virtuous Woman specifically for you. Veritas, being the mother of Virtus, was considered the root of all virtue; a person living an honest life was bound to be virtuous. Virtus – "manliness" – valor, excellence, courage, character, and worth.Download