During the reconstruction period southern tenant farmers

Many must have migrated to Oklahoma as employees or tenants of Indian landowners, or later on as homesteaders or displaced tenants.

In addition, while sharecropping gave African Americans autonomy in their daily work and social lives, and freed them from the gang-labor system that had dominated during the slavery era, it often resulted in sharecroppers owing more to the landowner for the use of tools and other supplies, for example than they were able to repay.

As only a few thousand Indian slaves became freedmen, it does not seem likely that all black farmers in Oklahoma were their descendants. In all likelihood, many of the freedmen lost their small farms and did so for the same reasons that white farmers lost theirs.

Black tenancy in Indian Territory has a similar story.

This situation made the STFU far more dependent than Northern industrial unions on outside funding and occasional safe refuge for its organizers. Nonetheless, the Southern Tenant Farmers Union briefly thrived. Compared towhite farmers,of whom were tenants, the numbers of blacks are quite low.

Interestingly, there were 16, white sharecroppers at the same time. Originally, the STFU was formed to protest the eviction of twenty-three farming families on a plantation near Tyronza, but grew in scope to fight generally for the rights of sharecroppers, tenant farmers, and farm laborers. When the tribesmen were removed to Indian Territory, they brought their slaves with them.

Generally, the black croppers and tenants had smaller farms that were less productive, lowering their standards of living and making their tenure on the land even less secure.

A Republican victory in the Congressional elections of led to the passage of the Reconstruction Acts inbeginning a new phase of Reconstruction. Cash tenants kept all of the proceeds from the crop. Government programs, mechanization, and their own inefficiency drove tenants from the land.

The STFU faced enormous legal and extralegal violence and repression precisely because of its interracial nature and its attack on the longstanding exploitative agricultural system of the South.

Essentially, they mined the soil. Because of a constant surplus of tenants, or renters as they were called, at the end of the crop year landlords easily recruited new renters, often on terms even more favorable to the landlord.

Nor could Indians lease their land to outsiders, but they could employ whites to work their land. Anne Hodges Morgan and H. Despite a delayed process, eventually most freedmen received land allotments of at least forty acres. The legacy of the Southern Tenant Farmers Union, though, as an integrated, vibrant union movement, stands as an example of Black and white labor militancy, and its emphasis on the power of revivalist songs and speeches in social struggle presaged the early civil rights movement.

By nearly half of white farmers and 77 percent of black farmers in the country were landless.Aug 21,  · With the southern economy in disarray after the abolition of slavery and the devastation of the Civil War, conflict arose during the Reconstruction era between many white landowners attempting to.

During the period of Reconstruction the Radical Republicans in Congress tried to convert the freedmen into small free-holding farmers, but the former slaves were simply not ready to manage their own farms.

31) During the Reconstruction period southern tenant farmers A) found it easy to gain ownership of their own land. B) seldom earned much money and fell into debt.

Era. Landless poor whites and freedmen worked the land of a landowner. The landowner supplied all of neccesary items to grow the crops in return for a share of the harvest.

Sharecropping and tenant farming were the most widespread systems of agricultural labor in the postwar South. Bythe region had around million farms, and croppers or tenants worked half.

By that year, fully one-third of white farmers and almost three-fourths of black farmers were either sharecroppers or tenant farmers.


The South after Reconstruction. During the Reconstruction period of –, federal law provided civil rights protection in the U.S. South for freedmen, the African Americans who had formerly been slaves. Farmers who owned their own equipment were tenant farmers and paid a smaller fee for use of the owner’s land.

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During the reconstruction period southern tenant farmers
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